"N.Y. Post Office Pneumatic Tube" c. 1912. G.G. Bain Collection.N.Y. Post Office Pneumatic Tube” c. 1912.  G.G. Bain Collection. Photo via Library of Congress.

I’m often asked what my favorite weird/obscure fact about New York City was. Ironically, as the founder of Untapped Cities, this question frequently proves difficult because there are just so many amazing things about this city. So I went back into my memory archives, thinking what about New York City impelled me to create Untapped Cities. The pneumatic tube mail system is top on that list.

The first pneumatic tube mail system was installed in Philadelphia (sorry New York) in 1893. New York City’s came in 1897. Each tube could carry between 400 and 600 letters and traveled at 30-35 miles per hour. In its full glory, the pneumatic tubes covered a 27-mile route, connecting 23 post offices. This network stretched up Manhattan’s east and west sides, from Bowling Green and Wall Street, all the way north to Manhattanville and East Harlem.

Anecdotal stories indicate that the system may have extended into the Bronx, with sandwich subs reportedly being delivered via pneumatic tubes from a renown subway shop in the Bronx to downtown postal stations. The system even crossed boroughs into Brooklyn (using the Brooklyn Bridge), taking four minutes to take letters from Church Street near City Hall to the General Post Office in Brooklyn (now Cadman Plaza).

The system, which was located 4 to 6 feet below the city streets, was created and owned by private companies, to which the city paid rent and labor. According to Kate Ascher, author of The Works, “The high operating costs of the pneumatic system ultimately proved its downfall. By 1918, the federal government considered the annual rental payments ($17,000 per mile per annum) made by the post office to be ‘exorbitant’ and endorsed a new alternative with greater capacity–the automobile–as the delivery method of choice.” In New York City, a successful lobby by contractors led to the reinstatement of pneumatic mail service in 1922. A complete stop didn’t happen until 1953. Paris’ system, which covered 269 miles, continued for an additional 34 years (but was more limited in what it could carry–the pipes were only 2 inches diameter).

And what’s left of the pneumatic tubes? Not much, if at all. The location of the tubes within a city’s underbelly basically guaranteed its destruction once no longer in use.  According to The Smithsonian National Postal Museum, “Installation of the tubes was problematic, with previously laid pipes for sewage and gas limiting the size and thus the amount and kind of mail a pneumatic tube could carry. Water table levels also presented difficulties.” Kate Ascher also notes that there was a time when remnants of the pneumatic tubes were still being found, but not often any longer.

Some additional fun facts about the pneumatic tube mail system:

  • According to this incredible article by Robert A. Cohen, the first cylinder tube to travel through the New York City system contained “a Bible, a flag and a copy of the Constitution. The second contained an imitation peach in honor of Senator Chauncy Depew (He was fondly known as “The Peach”).  A third carrier had a black cat in it, for reasons unknown.”
  • It had set hours of operation: 5am to 10pm on weekdays, and 5am to 10am on Saturdays
  • The size of the carriers in New York City was 24 inches long, 8 inches across
  • 95,000 letters were moved daily, about 1/3 of all first class letters
  • It took 4 minutes to get from the General Post Office to Grand Central using a tranverse tube that cut across Manhattan
  • It took between 15 and 20 minutes for mail to get from Herald Square to Manhattanville and East Harlem
  • It took 11 minutes to get from the General Post Office to the Planetarium Post Office, near the Museum of Natural History

Here’s where you can find remnants of the pneumatic tube network in New York City. Find out more about the pneumatic tube mail system and other fun facts about the anatomy of the city in Kate Ascher’s book, The Works

Get in touch with the author @untappedmich.

15 thoughts on “Then & Now: NYC’s Pneumatic Tube Mail Network

  1. The New York Mail Tubes at the end was operated by Lamson Corp. of Syracuse, NY. My uncle was a senior VP of Lamson and I had a fascination with them. He showed me a lot of the operating statistics of the system, in the early 1950s the last segment operated from Church St. Station P.O. to GPO at 32nd/34th St. on NYC’s west side. I remember that during a renovation of the Brooklyn Bridge a major route from Church St. to Grand Army Plaza was removed. Each segment seems to have been abandoned after a congressman appealed to the House that they could save so much money by switching to trucks. The comment on the final abandonment “the purchase of two trucks for $25,000 can bring about almost $1mil in savings.” I remember my uncle telling me that c. 1953 when I was in high school. The fact that it ran by pressure not vacuum (like the department stores) helped its reliability. As far as the underground rights for the tubes go, all underground conduits are registered, and if “must dig, check” as the Con Edison signs say. If you intercept a registered tube, you must fix it (and probably pay for loss of service, an unregistered tube, its yours; when NY Mail Tubes lost their contract, there were any number of data carriers and new fiber optic line companies ready to grab the well maintained mail tubes. I’ve known of the NY Mail Tubes since 1945, they always fascinated me – thanks for the update.

    1. Thanks so much for sharing Joel! The mail tubes are one of my fascinations as well!

  2. The whole truth
    It was operated partially
    In chamber’s street and wall st.
    Areas until the mid 60s
    I was a mail room clerk
    And was instructed and used
    The tube system

  3. All of the Eastern Air Lines parts store rooms at Miami International Airport were connected by pneumatic tubes. In addition to small parts and paperwork, a live rat would occasionally take an “Extra Ticket” ride from one side of the airport to the other.

    1. Hi Chuck! Thank you for sharing, love the story about the rats 🙂

  4. I remember using it at the hospital where I worked 20 years ago. Back then, a user would press a couple of buttons on a grid that matched up to a specific department in the hospital and the carrier would find its way there. I wonder how the pressing of the buttons notified the system of the package’s destination.

  5. I never knew that before, that New York had one of these pnumatic tube systems, and that it existed in the late 1800s! I only have seen those tubes used at banks, and I always thought it was a cool technology. It would be neat if we had a tube system that connected everyone’s houses, but I guess now with email and cell phones that would never be pratical.

  6. Excellent article. However, the author glosses over the cause for the system’s final demise in 1953.

    In that year, Dwight Eisenhower became President, defeating Adlai Stevenson the Democratic candidate. One of Eisenhower’s first acts was to name as Postmaster General Arthur Summerfield, who had been a major player in the Republican National Committee and was an executive in the Michigan auto industry.

    Promptly, General Motors delivery vehicles began appearing in Manhattan, and the pneumatic tube system was shut down permanently.

    1. Please note my comment on the shutdown of the system. You can learn more about Mr. Summerfield at: http://millercenter.org/president/eisenhower/essays/cabinet/577. A few years ago I learned this history and found photos of the system in operation, but don’t have those references. Note his more famous actions, which let the US Postal Service into aggressive anti-obscenity actions, including attempted prohibition of D.H. Lawrence’s Lady Chatterley’s Lover.

    1. Hi Jim, you’re absolutely right about 32nd Street. According to Kate Ascher’s book The Works, it states the GPO at Herald Square but you did mention that the GPO went from Park Row to far West 32nd Street. It’s possible she meant the far West 32nd Street location but as you mention in the 1890s the pneumatic tubes didn’t further west than Madison. I’ll be checking in with her regarding that!

  7. It is my understanding that these pneumatic tubes have in some instances enjoyed a second life as under-street conduits for wire and cable runs up and down Manhattan. The Verizon building at West and Vesey Streets, I was told took major advantage. This would now seem to make sense in light of the map’s showing Church and Vesey as a meeting point of many of the pneumatic pathways.

  8. I read that was how a developer first experimented with a subway. Since the corrupt politicians were in league with the ppl who ran the elevated lines…. the only way the guy (forgot his name) could get a permit for the tunnel was to say it was for the mail. He never got to build the full system though – it was more of a test.

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