6. Hell Gate Bridge
Built between 1912-16 by engineer Gustave Lindenthal and architect Henry Hornbostel, the Hell Gate Bridge was once the longest steel bridge in the world and the only four-track long-span railway bridge ever built. It connects Astoria to Randall’s/Wards Island (which are now joined into one island) and the Bronx. The original design called for a steel lattice structure on the long approach ramps, but it was changed to smooth concrete to make it more difficult for asylum inmates on Randall’s Island and Wards Island to escape. Hell Gate was named for the dangerous rocks and perilous waters at the point where the East River and the Harlem River connect, around which the infamous HMS Hussar sank with almost a million British pounds in gold.