12. Guinea Town, Hudson Valley

Springwood at Hyde Park, which was home to one of New York's free Black communities
Modern-day Hyde Park

Guinea Town was located in modern-day Hyde Park in the Hudson Valley. It was established in the 1790s and survived until 1850, built by free Blacks. Guinea Town was particularly significant as a key location along the Underground Railroad to Nova Scotia. At its peak, Guinea Town had over 60 families, and it was led by Eliakim Levi. He was a conductor on the Underground Railroad alongside followers of abolitionist Elias Hicks.

Another leader, Primus Martin, had a home in Guinea Town that remains today; ceramic fragments reveal communal dining was prevalent, suggesting he was of higher status. Many in the community owned small farms but worked for elites who had large properties along the Hudson River. The community gradually dissolved after a man named John Hackett purchased much of the land. Nearly two dozen properties were recommended as state and national historic places by the New York State Board of Historic Preservation in December 2017.